Brazil misplaced virtually 800 public libraries in 5 years – Época Negócios

Specialists see neglect of essentially the most susceptible inhabitants, which doesn’t have entry to bookstores (Photograph: Getty Photos by way of BBC)

Top BBC subscription (Photo: BBC)

Between 2015 and 2020, Brazil misplaced a minimum of 764 public libraries, in keeping with knowledge from the Nationwide System of Public Libraries (SNBP), maintained by the Ministry of Tourism’s Particular Secretariat for Tradition.

In 2015, the database had 6,057 public libraries in Brazil, a quantity that dropped to five,293 in 2020, the newest knowledge accessible on the SNBP web site.

For librarians, the lower within the variety of libraries reveals a disregard of the general public energy for essentially the most susceptible inhabitants, which doesn’t have entry to bookstores.

Additionally they warn that the variety of closed libraries could possibly be even greater, as a result of present fragility of the Nationwide System of Public Libraries, after the disappearance of the Ministry of Tradition, and the shortage of efficient management by the state techniques, whose knowledge feed. the nationwide system.

Public libraries are these maintained by municipalities, states, the Federal District, or the federal authorities that serve all audiences. They’re thought of cultural amenities and subsequently fall throughout the scope of public coverage of the federal authorities — beforehand below the Ministry of Tradition and now, with the demise of the portfolio, below the Particular Secretariat for Tradition.

This account doesn’t embody college and college libraries, whose audience is college students, lecturers and staff of instructional establishments.

Searched by BBC Information Brasil, the Particular Secretariat for Tradition of the Ministry of Tourism didn’t reply to a query about what explains the closure of a whole bunch of public libraries lately, nor what’s the coverage of the Jair Bolsonaro (PL) authorities for libraries.

The Nationwide Cultural Plan, a set of aims for the sector in power since 2010 whose validity was prolonged by Bolsonaro till 2024, has as certainly one of its aims “guaranteeing the implementation and upkeep of libraries in all Brazilian municipalities”.

The lack of greater than 700 libraries lately leaves the nation additional and additional away from this objective.

The graph shows how the country lost its libraries (Photo: SNBP/Ministerul Turismului)

The graph reveals how the nation misplaced its libraries (Photograph: SNBP/Ministerul Turismului)

Of the 764 public libraries closed in 5 years, 698 (or 91% of the entire) have been situated within the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, most of them municipal libraries.

São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, in keeping with the SNBP, a quantity that dropped to 304 in 2020, with the lack of 538 models in 5 years. The quantity represents 70% of the entire variety of closed libraries within the nation throughout that interval.

SP Leituras, the social group at the moment accountable for managing the State System of Public Libraries of São Paulo (SisEB), confirmed that the numbers registered within the nationwide system are appropriate and have been offered by SisEB, contemplating, nonetheless, that they could be intermediaries of information and never the official re-registration carried out on the finish of every yr.

In line with the group, a part of the lower within the variety of libraries is defined by the pandemic, which led to the non permanent or everlasting closure of a number of models.

Requested concerning the causes for the closures in 2015, earlier than the pandemic, SP Readings referred the query to the Secretary of Tradition and Artistic Economic system of the State of São Paulo.

“It’s tough to conclude the rationale for the variation (or lower) within the variety of establishments. We all know that, sadly, many libraries have been closed yr after yr, however we can’t say with absolute certainty that these are the definitive figures,” answered the folder. , by e-mail.

São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, a number that dropped to 304 in 2020, according to the SNBP (Photo: Disclosure/Marília City Hall)

São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, a quantity that dropped to 304 in 2020, in keeping with the SNBP (Photograph: Disclosure/Marília Metropolis Corridor)

Minas Gerais, for its half, had 888 public libraries in 2015, a quantity that dropped to 728 in 2020, a lack of 160 libraries in 5 years, in keeping with SNBP knowledge.

Searching for to touch upon the lower within the variety of libraries, the State Division of Tradition and Tourism of Minas Gerais responded that “The Authorities of Minas is accountable for the information of the state registry, and in Minas Gerais, the variety of public libraries registered within the State Public Libraries, right this moment [12/7] it’s 752 items of kit”.

Additionally in keeping with the folder, the replace is finished each 4 years and the brand new registration will likely be carried out in December 2022. “Different registrations are the duty of the entities they’re generated by and it’s as much as the municipalities to take part or not. in them”, added the secretary.

The closure of libraries between 2015 and 2020 within the nation reverses the development of earlier years.

From 2004 to 2011, throughout which the Federal Authorities’s Open E book Program lasted in partnership with municipalities, 1,705 new libraries have been created in Brazil and 682 have been modernized, in keeping with data on the SNBP web site.

BBC Information Brasil requested the SNBP’s historic sequence of the register of public libraries working in Brazil yr by yr, however obtained no response.

The survey was then carried out by evaluating the information for 2015 accessible on the outdated SNBP web site archived via the Web Archive mission with the information for 2020, at the moment accessible on the web site of the Ministry of Tourism.

“Disregarding essentially the most susceptible”
Fábio Cordeiro, president of the Federal Library Council (CFB), believes that the closing of libraries in Brazil lately is defined by numerous elements.

“Libraries are cultural amenities and on this final interval we now have had the removing of the Ministry of Tradition and a scarcity of appreciation of those amenities,” says Cordeiro. “Closing public libraries reveals a scarcity of funding and authorities curiosity.”

He additionally cites a disregard for the low-income inhabitants, which relies upon extra on libraries.

“There’s a lack of insurance policies concentrating on essentially the most susceptible a part of the inhabitants, who shouldn’t have entry to bookstores, who shouldn’t have the earnings to purchase books. Those that want libraries essentially the most are essentially the most susceptible individuals who do not have them. they’ve such quick access to the e book.”

E book gross sales in Brazil are falling yr by yr. In 2013, the yr with the most effective efficiency within the nationwide e book market within the final decade, gross sales from publishers to bookstores totaled 279.7 million copies, in keeping with a survey carried out by Nielsen BookData for the Brazilian E book Chamber (CBL) and Nationwide Publishers. Union of books (Snel).

Market e book gross sales. Copies offered, in tens of millions*. *Gross sales from publishers to bookstores don’t embody gross sales to the federal government.

Final yr, 191 million books have been offered, down 1% from the 193 million books offered in 2020 and down 32% from the 2013 peak.

Additionally in 2021, the typical month-to-month earnings of Brazilians fell to its lowest stage since 2012, in keeping with IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), to 1,353 actual {dollars}.

Additionally, in keeping with IBGE, the share of Brazilian municipalities with public libraries decreased from 97.7% in 2014 to 87.7% in 2018, in keeping with the newest version of the Municipal Primary Info Survey (Munich) that included this subject . The proportion elevated yr by yr till 2014, when it started to say no.

Cordeiro additionally cites the development of recent applied sciences as an element that has diminished library audiences.

In line with the Studying Portraits survey by Instituto Pró-Livro, in 2019, 68% of Brazilians mentioned they by no means went to libraries.

However the closure of amenities additionally appears to affect this, as in that yr 45% of respondents mentioned there was no public library of their metropolis or neighborhood, up from 20% who gave the identical reply in 2007.

Adriana Ferrari, technical director of the Florestan Fernandes Library of the College of Philosophy, Letters and Human Sciences of the College of São Paulo (FFLCH-USP) and vice-president of the Brazilian Federation of Librarian Associations (Febab), believes that there’s a weak spot within the knowledge put at provision by the SNBP, as there is no such thing as a efficient assortment of knowledge.

At present, in keeping with SNBP, the gathering is made in partnership with the State and District Public Library Programs.

“Some states have more practical management of their state techniques, others have weaker management. So this bigger decline within the Southeast area could also be a results of the standard of information assortment,” he says.

“I do not really feel secure assuming it was simply them [764] libraries which have closed. I feel this quantity could possibly be even greater, as a result of years have seen a scrapping of your entire system of entry to data, studying, tradition and libraries themselves,” says Ferrari.

The librarian notes that the Nationwide Tradition Plan was by no means carried out. And, even after the approval of the Nationwide Studying and Writing Coverage (PNLE), referred to as the Castilho Regulation (Regulation 13.696/18), sanctioned by Michel Temer (MDB), the target of “universalizing the suitable of entry to books, to learn, write, literature and libraries’ has made no progress.

“We have no public coverage in power, we do not have the Ministry of Tradition, which is the division that manages the Nationwide System of Public Libraries. So, the system exists, however with an especially fragile construction. That is why we have not superior, we’re going backwards”, he says he.

“The library isn’t solely an area for books and studying, it’s a door for infinite prospects, for the opening of cultural repertoires. They’re areas of assembly, of belonging, in order that they transcend collections”, says Ferrari, who defends the consolidation of public insurance policies to reverse this failure state of affairs.

In the course of the E book Biennale, held in July in São Paulo, CFB launched the #SouBibliotecaEscolar marketing campaign, which goals to adjust to Regulation no. personal faculties within the nation could have libraries, with a minimal assortment of 1 title per enrolled scholar.

The deadline for complying with the regulation expired in 2020 with out the goal being met.

Febab will quickly launch a platform with the objective of mapping all libraries of all kinds (public, college, college and group) within the nation. The thought is to have the ability to monitor and assist state techniques have extra constant knowledge about these public amenities.

BBC Basement (Photo: BBC)

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