Sausage, ham: how processed meat is made and the way it’s linked with most cancers – 01/08/2022

Sausage, bratwurst and bacon might even share house with lizard, duck and butcher’s exhausting shank, however in contrast to chilly cuts, these meals usually are not meat. in nature. Like ham, turkey breast, salami and sausage, they’re examples of so-called processed meats.

“Most processed meats comprise pork or beef, however they’ll additionally comprise poultry and organ meats equivalent to liver, or organ meats equivalent to blood,” differentiates Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni, FSP/USP Diet Professor (Division of Public Well being, Solar College). – Paulo).

Mixing of meat is allowed whether it is offered for by the technical rules. In line with Marisa Aparecida Rodríguez Pollonio of the College of Meals Engineering at Unicamp (State College of Campinas), all meat processed in Brazil that has handed inspection meets the identification and high quality requirements outlined by the Product Identification and High quality Technical Rules, or RTIQ. , animal origin.

These requirements are regulated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provide and authorized by legislatures equivalent to Anvisa (Nationwide Well being Surveillance Company).

Though processed meat is secure from a well being standpoint, it may be excessive in sodium and fats. Earlier than they attain the fridges, they’re processed by means of procedures that improve the style or enhance its preservation, together with salting, canning (including salt), fermentation and smoking (exposing meals to smoke) – therefore the nomenclature “processed”.

A few of these manufacturing steps, equivalent to including preservatives, can even hurt the physique. In 2015, the Worldwide Company for Analysis on Most cancers (IARC), a part of the WHO (World Well being Group), added processed meat to its checklist of group 1 carcinogens for which there’s already ample proof of a hyperlink to most cancers. For instance.

dwell effectively listened to meals engineers, nutritionists and physicians to clarify how processed meat is made and why overconsumption of it might improve the danger of continual illness.

More often than not, sausages are constructed from much less noble cuts of meat.

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Mortadella and sausages: meat, trimmings and additions

Within the preparation of sausages and sausages, much less noble cuts of meat (“second” meat) are normally used. So-called “mechanically deboned meat”, CMS, that’s, bones and carcasses of poultry, cattle or pigs which have been deboned and changed into uncooked supplies for the manufacturing of processed meat, can be used.

These bones and carcasses have to be authorized by the SIF (Federal Inspection Service) for human consumption. Jennifer Medeiros Campos Guerra, nutritionist and researcher on the Animal Lab at UFPE (Federal College of Pernambuco), explains that the trade is utilizing CMS to cut back the price of sausages and keep away from meat waste that might not be eliminated by hand in slaughterhouses.

“If you happen to think about cattle weighing 500 kg, there may be normally a chunk of meat that will get caught within the carcass after the cuts have been made. cash, so the trade makes use of this meat connected to the bones,” says the meat specialist.

These cuts are crushed and frozen, positioned in a tool known as a “cutter” after which combined with ice, salt, and components equivalent to nitrites and phosphates. Starch and vegetable proteins can also be added.

The parts are then combined to kind a liquid mass (technically generally known as an emulsion) which consists of a combination of meat with the moisture of its fats, water, salt and components.

Lastly, the combination is stuffed, that’s, launched, into an appropriate wrapper, which can be, for instance, the intestines of a bull. The drug is ready and cooled for commercialization.

Ham is obtained from a part of the muscle, and ham is a combination

In line with Guerra, ham is the one processed meat that doesn’t embrace meat mixtures: it’s constructed from pork muscle. Ham additionally contains varied varieties of meat.

Each ham and ham are restructured pork merchandise which might be brine. “It is like once we need to season a complete piece of ham at house and depart it in a single day on this marinade,” compares Pollonio, professor at Unicamp.

This brine is utilized to the ham items by injection on the calculated weight. After that, the cuts enter the tools, the place “tipping steps” happen to distribute the substances contained in the muscle tissues of the animals.

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Each ham and ham are restructured pork-based merchandise.

Picture: iStock

Parts are embedded and positioned in particular codecs for cooking. They’re then unwrapped and packaged and could be offered in slices.

Hamburger, bacon and breading

Field hamburgers out there in supermarkets are meat merchandise made solely from several types of meat. They might or might not comprise seasoning, are molded and frozen.

The origin of bacon is pork stomach meat. A part of the pork is salted and smoked, usually uncovered to synthetic smoke.

Within the case of breaded merchandise equivalent to nuggets, the start line is the substrate, which could be a marinated complete fillet or a restructured uncooked materials.

“They get the addition of layers generally known as pre-dust, dough and breading, that are just like artisanal breading processes, however with far more stability and security,” Pollonio describes.

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Salami is principally constructed from cuts of pork and beef in Brazil.

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salami and others

Uncooked meat is used for manufacturing – in Brazil, primarily pork and beef. They’re crushed with salt and a few components and wrapped in permeable wrappers.

In air-conditioned chambers with temperature and relative humidity management, the fermentation course of takes place with managed acidification and drying to roughly 30% of the unique weight. This permits the salami to be steady for storage outdoors of the fridge. “But when it is sliced, it must be refrigerated,” says Pollonio.

There are additionally contemporary meals (which should be refrigerated) or frozen meals equivalent to sausages, pickled cuts, Christmas birds, and frozen loins. They’re seasoned, cooked to their identification commonplace, and offered.

What are the well being dangers

Iarc (Worldwide Company for Analysis on Most cancers), a division of the WHO, printed a big research in 2018 that concluded the human carcinogenic threat of consuming pink meat and processed meat.

MarchioniSure FSP-USP, explains that sure meat processing steps, equivalent to salting and smoking, can result in the formation of carcinogenic chemical substances, together with N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons.

Carcinogenic compounds, says the researcher, bind to kind compounds (adducts), which, if left uncorrected, trigger mutations.

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Some meat processing steps, equivalent to salting and smoking, can result in the formation of carcinogenic chemical substances.

Picture: iStock

As well as, processed meats might comprise components apart from salt, equivalent to color-fixing compounds (nitrates), that are unhealthy.

Such substances are used within the meals trade to restrict the expansion of dangerous micro organism. Nitrites and nitrates by themselves usually are not carcinogenic. Each are pure chemical compounds that comprise nitrogen and oxygen and are current in water, soil, and greens equivalent to beets and spinach.

The issue is that when interacting with some compounds, equivalent to amino acids (present in proteins), they’ll kind substances which might be dangerous to well being, equivalent to carcinogenic nitrosamines.

Properly, Marchioni explains, nature has made most nitrate-rich greens additionally wealthy in antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and polyphenols) that stop undesirable chemical reactions that processed meals cannot.

Though regulators world wide place limits on the addition of those compounds – in Brazil, for instance, it’s 150 mg per kilogram of meals – the overconsumption of processed meat is a priority.

Fabio Guilherme Campos, former president and full member of the SBP (Brazilian Society of Proctology), notes that bowel most cancers is the results of the interplay of two components, genetic and behavioral – the latter pertains to meals.

“The breakdown of processed meat fats within the intestines can result in the formation of some substances which might be dangerous to the physique, so should you eat loads of fats and little fiber, you’ll not generate short-chain fatty acids, that are protecting, and all through your life. there will likely be an imbalance,” he says, who can also be a professor on the USP Faculty of Medication.

Along with growing the danger of sure varieties of most cancers, consuming processed meats can also improve the danger of different continual illnesses, equivalent to stroke and kind 2 diabetes, relying on the quantity of fats and sodium.

While you purchase a meat product, you need to eat meat, however what you are truly consuming is a sure share of protein, water, salt, and fats. Jennifer Medeiros Campos Guerra, nutritionist and researcher

The Inca (Nationwide Most cancers Institute), affiliated with the Division of Well being, recommends that you just fully keep away from or not less than cut back your consumption of such a animal protein.

“For instance, thrice per week is an exaggeration,” Campos analyzes.

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